As science unlocks more and more of the mysteries of nature, the more the theory of evolution has become accepted as fact, and those who question it are viewed as being either uneducated or close minded. However, the opposite may actually be the case.
Those who want to believe that there is no divine creator are so anxious to prove that all living organisms are composed of nothing more than atoms, working together according to the natural laws of chemical reactions, that they tend to overlook the obvious, especially when what they see doesn't support what they want to believe. In their quest to prove that creation is simply the result of natural forces, rather than divine intervention, they continue to seek ways to explain away the unexplainable processes of nature.
Perhaps the biggest problem scientists face to explain evolution is the origin of life. Many theories have been advanced and thousands of experiments have been performed in an effort to create a living organism out of inorganic material in a laboratory, but so far no one has ever succeeded in coming close.
The most common explanation for how life originated is that 3.8 billion years ago the earth was covered with water, but not the kind of water we know today. This water was composed of a mixture of toxic chemicals, often called the primordial soup. Then, one day, something happened. Some believe it might have been a bolt of lightning that struck the water that somehow caused a certain group of molecules to come to life. Although this may seem like a plausible explanation to some, the more we look into it the more implausible it becomes.
Some people think that viruses are the simplest forms of life, but they are not able to replicate themselves. In order for a virus to multiple, it needs to attack a host cell. If there are no cellular life forms for the virus to attach itself to, it will die. If the very first living organism on earth was a virus, it would not have been able to duplicate itself, thereby ending life on earth when it died a natural death. Therefore the most logical first life form to appear on earth would most certainly have to have been a single-cell creature.
Nearly every child in the seventh grade studies cells and what they are made of. The most basic living organism is that of a single-cell bacteria, which is comprised of an outer wall, an inner wall (called a cell membrane), a jelly like fluid known as cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmids, and DNA. To understand why each of these parts of a cell are essential to its survival, let's look at them individually.
The outer wall is relatively hard or tough. This not only gives the cell its shape but protects it from being damage by outside forces. By comparison, the cell membrane is very thin and can easily be damaged, yet it needs to be thin in order to allow certain materials to flow easily in and out of the cell.
All living organisms must take in nutrients in order to survive, and all living organisms produce waste material in the process of using up the nutrients. For this reason, a cell must have a way to take in nutrients and to expel its waste, which is the function of both the outer and inner walls. Although the outer wall is relatively hard, it does allow water and other nutrients to pass through it, thereby acting as a coarse filter.
The cell membrane is semi-porous and allows nutrients to pass in from outside the cell as well as allowing waste to exit the cell. However, the cell has the ability to control when to let material in or out and when not to, thereby keeping the equilibrium of water pressure inside the cell constant. It also prevents the cytoplasm, ribosome, DNA, and other parts of the cell from leaking out.
The cytoplasm is made up of water, enzymes, amino acids, salts, nutrients, waste, and gases that the cell needs in order to function and survive. In this soupy mix are thousands and thousands of molecules known as ribosome, which are what produces the proteins necessary for the cell to remain strong and healthy. Also in this jelly-like fluid are plasmids, which are little circles of extra DNA and, floating in the center of the cell, is the main strand of DNA. (A single-cell organism does not have a nucleus.)
DNA is the operating instruction manual for the cell. It is the DNA that tells each part of the cell what to do, when to do it, and how to divide itself to make a new cell. DNA is the brains of a cell and without it the cell wouldn't know how to function.
Besides the question of how life began, an even greater problem for evolutionists is, how did this magnificent operating manual, known as DNA, come into existence? The DNA code is so precise that just making a few minor changes can render its instructions either unintelligible, or unworkable. To say that somehow, by sheer chance, this perfect system of encoding instructions came into existence through natural means is to believe that elephants can fly because they have large ears.
However, an instruction manual is useless by itself. For example, suppose someone bought a bookcase that needed to be assembled. It would no doubt come with an assembly instruction booklet, but the instruction booklet itself is not going to build the bookcase. Someone has to not only read the instructions, but understand what they are reading, and then follow the assembly instructions contained in the booklet.
The same is true of DNA. It is just the instruction manual, but somehow the cell must be able to read it, understand what it says, and then follow the instructions. The way this happens in a cell is nothing short of amazing.
A specific molecule of protein called a histone forms around the DNA strand and, once this molecule has completed its attachment, it then moves along the DNA strand, reading its coded instructions. But what makes this molecule move into action are enzymes known by the acronym HAT that are necessary in activating the histones to start the process of reading the DNA As the histone moves along the DNA strand, it makes a copy of the code, which then comes out of the histones as a long strand. This strand is known as RNA, and the process of making RNA is called transcription.
When the RNA strand has been completed its task of making a copy of the DNA code, it then snakes its way through the cytoplasm to a ribosome molecule. Once there, the ribosome locks itself around the RNA in preparation for reading it. In the cytoplasm there are twenty different kinds of amino acids floating around, and it is how those amino acids are connected to one another that determine what kind of a protein will be produced.
Then something that scientists call a transfer molecule brings each amino acid to the ribosome. It is the ribosome that assembles the amino acids into the right kind of protein as instructed by the genetic code found on the RNA.
There is a specific transfer molecule for each specific amino acid, and each transfer molecule is identified by a three letter code. Inside the ribosome the RNA is pulled through it like a ticker tape and the code for each amino acid is read off of it, three letters at a time. This process is known as translation.
These letters are then matched to the three corresponding letters found on the transfer molecules and when the right amino acid is found, it is added to the next amino acid indicated by the instructions found on the RNA. In this way, amino acids are linked together in a specific order to create a specific protein. Hence, each ribosome acts as a miniature factory, producing the necessary proteins needed for the survival of the cell.
Everything in the cell is not only absolutely essential but is perfectly designed to function in a certain way. If any one of these parts is missing, the cell cannot survive for very long. And this is true of even the individual parts of the cell themselves, such as the ribosomes, histones, DNA, RNA, etc. Each of them are like tiny little machines that are made up of a number of individual parts, put together in a very specific manner in order for them to perform a very specific task.
For example, histones read the DNA by "walking" along the double helix DNA strand, unraveling it, making a copy of it (called RNA), then reassembling the DNA strain. Thus, histones act like a motorized machine. The RNA moves through the cytoplasm to a ribosome, but to do this requires the RNA to have some sort of a propulsion motor. The transfer molecule likewise has a propulsion system that not only moves it through the cytoplasm, seeking out the appropriate amino acid, but then propelling it to a ribosome. That means these motors also contains some sort of a guidance system so that they not only can move but know where they are going. And as we look at each functioning part of a cell, we discover that they are made of many different parts. If anything in each of these individual machines and motors are missing, then that particular part of the cell cannot function properly, which then prevents the entire cell from properly functioning.
These individual parts of a cell are made of proteins, which are machines in themselves. They use energy, spin around like a rotor, pump, and cause motion, and there are hundreds of thousands of different kinds of protein machines. More than that, proteins are not just a string of amino acids linked together in a specific order but these strings fold on themselves in a very specific way to form a very particular shape, and it is the shape of this fold that determines its function. As the protein changes shape so does its function. Therefore, the shape of the protein is the critical factor.
For this reason, when the very first living organism appeared on earth, it had to appear with all these different parts already put together in just the right order, in just the right location, and being in just the right shape and size, including the building code found in the DNA. To say that these chemicals just happened to be aligned in just the right combination before being struck by lightning is like saying that all the parts of an automobile just happened to be laying around in just the right configuration by themselves so that when someone attached a battery to it, in just the right location, the engine of a fully functioning car came to life.
Furthermore, if life is nothing more than chemical reactions between molecules and atoms then, with the knowledge we have gained of chemistry, it should be an easy matter to create life in a laboratory but, try as hard as they can, no one has ever been able to duplicate what a microscopic, single-cell organism is able to do with ease. When it comes to creating a strand of DNA, scientists can manually make one in the laboratory, but it is a deliberate creative process. On the other hand, no one has ever been able to cause DNA to appear through natural means.
When we actually study in depth how life works, what we see is that in all of nature there are systems, where multiple parts are all needed to work together in harmony with one another in order to make the entire structure work properly. If even one part is missing in just one of the many parts of the organism then the whole system doesn't work. And the more complex the organism is, the more this truth becomes apparent.
For example, when we look at animal cells we find things such as a nucleus, nucleolus, golgi, mitochondrion, centrioles, lysosome, and many other parts that are not found in a single-cell organism. In the single-cell there is one long strand of DNA, looped around itself, but in an animal cell, there are 23 different strands of DNA, contained in 23 different chromosomes. Because each chromosome contains a tremendous amount of genetic information, we can think of each animal cell as containing twenty three volumes of DNA!
The human DNA contains three billion base pairs. If we think of each base pair as being a letter, then the instructions found in the human DNA would be the equivalent of a book containing three billion letters or approximately 750 million words. To put this in perspective, a normal full-length novel is between 80,000 and 100,000 words.
According to Darwin's "survival of the fittest" theory, when an animal is born with something that either doesn't help it to survive or is not needed for its survival, that animal or its offspring will eventually die off. And, indeed, when we look at the makeup of all plants and animals, what we discover is that, just like with a single-cell organism, there is nothing in the plant or animal that is not needed for its survival.
Evolutionists are aware of this but will say that this is proof that animals born with unnecessary parts died off. However, by saying this they have unwittingly undercut their own argument for evolution.
The theory of evolution states that from that first tiny, single cell living organism, all life on earth eventually evolved, as the first living cell duplicated itself, and they duplicated themselves until the sea was teeming with billions of these single-cell life forms. Then, over time, they evolved into multi-cell creatures until, after tens of millions of years, they developed into a wide variety of fish.
Both fish and humans have eyes, and the development of eyes is directed through the code of instructions found in our DNA. That means that at some point, the DNA in a multi-celled animal accidently mutated so as to create an eye. But an eye is more than just a single piece of tissue, even in fish. It is a system, and a very complex one at that, which requires many, many parts, all working together in perfect harmony, for it to do what it does.
An eye is like a camera. The first, and most important part of an eye, is the lens, but it can't be just any kind of lens. The lens has to be the right, precise shape, size, and material because if it isn't then it will not properly focus the image. Like a camera, the eye has to have an aperture for controlling the amount of light being let in. On an animal eye this is called the iris, and it automatically adjusts to let in the required amount of light, with no conscious thought on the part of the animal.
But how does the iris know how to do that? The answer is, because of the code found in the animal's DNA, but the instruction for making the iris function properly is made up of more than just one or two small, easily changed codes.
At the back of the inside of the eye are cones and rods for capturing the image that has been focused on them by the lens, as well as providing color and brightness. These rods and cones have to be the right size, contain the right number of them, and be located in precisely the right spot at the back of the eye. In addition to this, there are muscles that surround the eye which allow it to move from side to side and up and down as directed by the brain and there are blood vessels needed to provide the nutrients to all the cells of the eye.
Then there is a complex system that changes light, image, and color into electrical impulses. But that doesn't do any good unless an optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. But for the brain to understand what the eye is seeing, it has to be made in such a way as to be able to properly interpret those electrical impulses.
From what we now know about the eye, it is not just one simple part of the body. Instead, it is a system where, if just one of its many parts aren't precisely designed and located in just the exact place, then the eye won't do what it is intended to do. Therefore, in order to have an eye (let alone two of them) requires many, many exacting codes located in just the right position on the DNA.
According to evolutionists, just one DNA change can take thousands of years to occur, and they say that it is through small, incremental changes over tens or even hundreds of thousands of years that one species slowly evolves into another. It's safe to say that an animal with eyes can certainly be classified as a different species from one that has no eyes.
But the eye disproves this theory of evolution because if it took the eye thousands of year to develop as a result of small, incremental, random changes at the DNA level, the eye would have been useless to animals during those thousands of years. According to the theory of survival of the fittest, an animal with a useless eye would have died off. And if that is the case, then today there shouldn't be any animal with eyes. Therefore, for any animal to have eyes, all of its necessary parts had to be there, in the right combination, in just the right size and location, and with the correct instructions already completed in the DNA from the very beginning.
Single cell animals reproduce by dividing, but fish reproduce by laying eggs. This process of reproduction is vastly more complicated than merely splitting and dividing, and involves another specific set of mechanisms, all precisely made and all in just the right locations for this process to successfully take place. If just one part of this system of reproduction is either missing, or is not made to very stringent measurements, or is not located in just the right place within the body, then fish can't reproduce. Therefore, in order for fish to survive and thrive in their environment, the system needed for them to reproduce had to be fully in place from the very beginning of their existence.
Most animals reproduce by laying eggs, but mammals have a totally different reproductive system. Instead of laying eggs, the egg of the mother is nourished and developed inside her body. In a non-mammal's eggs, everything that is needed to nourish the developing embryo is contained inside the egg itself, but in mammals a completely different system of nourishing is required. Furthermore, the transition from having a system of reproduction based on laying eggs to one where the animal directly expels a live baby from her body could not have happened over millions of years through random mutated changes at the DNA level. For that to have happen it would require animals, over millions of years, to be part egg layers and part live birthers, and if that was the case, we should find abundant evidence that these kinds of animals once existed, but evolutionists can't produce any such evidence, because these two systems are so contrary to one another that they cannot exist together in the same body.
As humans we take walking upright for granted, but the more we learn about balance, the more we learn how many things are needed for our bodies to move the way it does. Like everything else, walking requires a very precise biological system, and when all those parts are not working as they should, walking upright becomes difficult. But that system works so perfectly for most people that we don't even give it a second thought.
The same is true with hearing. We don't hear because we have flaps of skin on the side of our head with a hole going down into our skull. To be able to hear takes many, many very specific and precisely made parts, all of which are essential to turning sound waves into electrical impulses that the brain then has to be able to interpret.
In order for our digestive system to work properly, there has to be just the right kind of teeth for mashing the food, saliva glands to secrete liquid to help soften the food, a tongue to help swallow the food, an esophagus with just the right kind of muscles to help move the food down to the stomach, glands that secrete a certain kind of digestive fluid into the stomach that will further break the food down, a tough lining in the stomach to keep the digestive fluid from dissolving the stomach itself, a small intestine that allows nutrients to be absorbed into the blood stream, and a mechanism that allows for the waste to automatically be expelled from the body. Animals also have to have a skeletal system, a circulatory system, a nervous system, and a urinary system. A system is a group of necessary parts, all working together to perform a particular function. As in all systems, if just one part is either missing or not made to an exact shape and size, then that entire system can't properly function.
However, the human body itself is one big system because everything in our body is designed to work together. In other words, we are not only made of many different systems, but all of those systems work together for the good of the whole body.
For example, when we eat, the food gets digested in the stomach for the purpose of preparing it to pass into the intestines, where it will be absorbed through the intestine walls into the blood stream (digestive system), where the necessary nutrients are carried to the cells (circulatory system), where (as we have already talked about) another system is operating at the cellular level. The same is true of our respiratory system. Air is taken in through our nose, which has mucous and hairs to strain away the dust and dirt, then the air goes into the lungs, where it is passed through into the circulatory system that carries it to the cells.
In the blood stream, we not only have red blood cells, designed to pick up oxygen and nutrients and carry them to the cells, but we also have a system of white blood cells that are designed to protect the body from disease. The liver, kidneys, panaceas, and gall bladder are not just simple organs but are highly complex systems in and of themselves, that work together with the other bodily systems to help keep us healthy and strong.
None of these systems can come into existence by slowly evolving over millions of years. In order for any of them to work, all of their necessary parts have to be there the first time they appear. If an animal is born with a system where even just one part is missing, then the system is useless to them, and when that happens the animal who has that useless system won't survive long enough for nature to keep making changes to their DNA over millions of years until it gets the system right. To say that all of these many and varied systems just happened to perfectly develop through the process of random chance mutations at the gene level is so far outside the realm of probability as to render it utterly impossible.
What we see then is that the more we learn about nature and its complexity, the more we realize that the theory of evolution can't be right because it fails to explain the existence of nature's systems.
Our hair grows about half a millimeter a day and the average adult with a full scalp has around 100,000 hairs on their head.
We shed more than 1 million skin cells every single day but they are constantly replenished automatically. The skin is an organ and is the largest organ we have.
Our body cells are reproducing themselves every single day. This means we have an entirely new set of taste buds every ten days, new nails every 6-10 months, new bones every ten years, and a new heart every 20 years.
The average male's testicles manufacture 10 million new sperm cells every day. Those that aren't used grow old and are eventually broken down inside the body, with any useful nutrients being absorbed and put to use.
Our body helps to digest our food before we even take food into our mouth. When we smell food, the mouth automatically produces more saliva to prepare the digestive system for work.
The glands in our mouth produce 1.5 liters of salvia every day. If this didn't happen our mouth would dry up and become overrun with bacteria and we wouldn't be able to digest our food.
The cells in the stomach lining produce an alkaline substances every few milliseconds to neutralize stomach acid. If this didn't happen our stomach would digest itself because some of the acids are strong enough to dissolve metals.
Red blood cells travel throughout the entire body, taking less than 60 seconds to complete a full circuit. This means they make 1440 trips around our body every day, delivering oxygen to keep the cells of our body energized. Each cell lives about 40 days before being replaced by a young model.
Cancer is formed when cells are altered in a way that reprograms their DNA. It is estimated that tens of thousands of cells suffer cancer-causing lesions every day but the body sends special enzymes throughout its system to inspect DNA strands for faults and fixes them before they turn into tumors.
Our liver is a multi-tasking factory. It manufactures cholesterol, vitamin D and blood plasma. It indentifies the nutrients the body needs and stores away some for future use. It filters 1.53 quarts (1.43 liters) of blood every minute and produces a quart (0.94 liters) of bile every day to help break down our food.
Each of our kidneys contains 1 million tiny filters that work together to filter an average of 2.2 pints (1.3 liters) of blood every minutes. That's 3168 pints (1872 liters) every single day, despite the fact that each kidney is only the size of fist. In addition to this, they also expel an average of 2.5 pints (1.4 liters) of urine from our body every day.